This lab continues exploration of transistor switching circuits to include CMOS logic gates, latches, and flip-flops. We will perform shift-register and counter circuits using small arrays of flip-flops. The two logic states are designated “0” (low) and “1” (high) and defined electronically by fixed voltage levels. The low-state is usually the reference or ground potential in the circuit, and the high-state is some positive voltage such as +5 V.A logic “gate” takes one or more logic-level inputs and produces a single logic-level output. The output is also a logic level, so the output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates.

Radar is an addition to man’s sensory equipment which affords genuinely new facilities. It enables a certain class of objects to be “seen” —that is, detected and located—at distances far beyond those at which they could be distinguished by the unaided eye. This is unimpaired by night, fog, cloud, smoke, and most other obstacles to ordinary vision. Radar further permits the measurement of the range of the objects it “sees” (this verb will hereafter be used without apologetic quotation marks) with a convenience and precision entirely unknown in the past. It can also measure the instantaneous speed of such an object toward or away from the observing station in a simple and natural way

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. The objective of this LAB is to study some simple resistive circuits in order to demonstrate Proportionality, Superposition, Thévenin, and Maximum Power Transfer theorems.

Control engineering or control systems engineering is the engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. The practice uses sensors to measure the output performance of the device being controlled and those measurements can be used to give feedback to the input actuators that can make corrections toward desired performance. When a device is designed to perform without the need of human inputs for correction it is called automatic control (such as cruise control for regulating a car's speed). Multi-disciplinary in nature, control systems engineering activities focus on implementation of control systems mainly derived by mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse range.

A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC),or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.

Satellites are specifically made for telecommunication purpose. They are used for mobile applications such as communication to ships, vehicles, planes, hand-held terminals and for TV and radio broadcasting. They are responsible for providing these services to an assigned region (area) on the earth. The power and bandwidth of these satellites depend upon the preferred size of the footprint, complexity of the traffic control protocol schemes and the cost of ground stations. A satellite works most efficiently when the transmissions are focused with a desired area. When the area is focused, then the emissions don’t go outside that designated area and thus minimizing the interference to the other systems.

The electrical machine laboratory is intended specifically to meet the needs of modern courses in electrical machines. It is used at undergraduate level for studying the characteristics and operation of dc, induction, synchronous and special machines using state of the art teaching modules. The subjects that are covered in this manual include: characteristics of dc motors and dc generators (separate, series, shunt and compound), determining the parameters and performance characteristics of transformers, and finally the starting methods, speed control and performance of 3-phase induction motors.

this laboratory gives an exposure to students in their third semester on a basic electrical devices and fitting like mercury vapors lamp, energy meter, mcb etc. through this, the students shall be able to appreciate the intricacies involved in domestic and industrial electrical wiring.

Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or a group of person. One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver doesn't have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.

Power System
An electric power system is a network of electrical components used to supply, transmit and use electric power. An example of an electric power system is the network that supplies a region's homes and industry with power - for sizable regions, this power system is known as the grid and can be broadly divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission system that carries the power from the generating centers to the load centers and the distribution that feeds the power to nearby homes and industries. Smaller power systems are also found in industry, hospitals, commercial buildings and homes. The majority of these systems rely upon three-phase AC power - the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world. Specialized power systems that do not always rely upon three-phase AC power are found in aircraft, electric rail systems, ocean liners and automobiles.
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